Attributes of the meals and bodily exercise constructed environments from the Southern Cone of Latin America


Inhabitants and sampling

The neighborhoods included on this examine have been randomly chosen through the use of the sampling design derived from the CESCAS I examine6. It used a multistage random sampling technique by which the primary stage consisted of randomly sampling census radii from every location, stratified by socio-economic degree. Within the second stage, a variety of blocks proportional to the radius measurement have been randomly chosen. We included all the chosen blocks to conduct the group commentary walks. Particulars of the examine design of the CESCAS I examine have been revealed elsewhere24. Briefly, the examine included 4 small to mid-sized cities within the Southern Cone of Latin America: two cities positioned in Argentina (Bariloche and Marcos Paz), one in Chile (Temuco), and one in Uruguay (Pando-Barros Blancos-Colonia Nicolich). Marcos Paz and Pando-Barros Blancos are small cities with 54,000 and 58,000 residents, respectively, in keeping with the newest census knowledge. Bariloche (Argentina) and Temuco (Chile) are mid-sized cities with 134,000 and 245,000 residents, respectively, in keeping with the newest census knowledge. These examine places have been chosen primarily based on inhabitants traits reflecting the nation averages. A complete of 139 consultant group areas or neighborhoods have been randomly chosen to conduct standardized group walks with direct commentary of the constructed surroundings (23 in Marcos Paz; 25 in Bariloche; 48 in Temuco and 43 in Canelones).

Information assortment

Educated and authorized observers performed all of the group commentary walks to evaluate the constructed bodily and meals surroundings of the neighborhoods. Inside every group commentary stroll, skilled observers collected knowledge on chosen attributes of the constructed surroundings, together with high quality of the streets and sidewalks, road infrastructure (lighting, crosswalk and visitors gentle) and meals shops and eating places. In every chosen neighborhood, a random begin level was decided, from the place observers accomplished an eight-block route by following a clockwise path (Fig. 1). All of the observations have been carried out throughout daylight in concurred hours. Observers had an express route and a map of the environment.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Geographical distribution of commentary walks within the examine websites. (a) Marcos Paz, Argentina; (b) Bariloche, Argentina; (c) Temuco, Chile and, (d) Pando and Barros Blancos, Uruguay. All maps are on the identical scale (1:40.000). Coordinate System: WGS1984. Base map layer credit: © OpenStreetMap contributors (https://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright/en).

As a result of within the 4 cities included within the examine, the native language is Spanish, translated and tailored variations of beforehand validated devices have been used.

To guage the streets, sidewalks and surrounding, chosen questions from the EPOCH-1 instrument25 have been used. To characterize the meals shops and eating places, we chosen objects from NEMS-S26 and EPOCH-125. Lastly, the POS Instrument27 was used to explain the general public open areas.

All knowledge administration actions have been led by the Information Coordinating Heart (DCC) at IECS. Information assortment was carried out utilizing Analysis Digital Information Seize (REDCap) system in a cellular app on Android tablets.

REDCap is a web-based software program developed on the Centre for Scientific and Translational Analysis at Vanderbilt College in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. REDCap supplies on-line and offline customers with the flexibility to create and handle medical analysis databases in compliance with Good Scientific Apply28,29. The REDCap Cell App (offline knowledge assortment) is a cellular software that was run off-line on tablets.

Throughout the group commentary walks, knowledge have been collected straight in REDCap utilizing pill gadgets. The tablets used within the discipline required double permission to entry the system, first to login on the gadget after which a REDCap account with a 6-digit pin have been required to entry the applying. At finish of the group commentary stroll, tablets have been synchronized through an web connection and knowledge have been uploaded into the examine database. Entry to the information was restricted by examine website.

All variables have been captured in digital varieties designed for this examine. The system allowed real-time knowledge entry validation by specifying a Area Validation or Information High quality Rule, which improved knowledge integrity by avoiding errors earlier than knowledge have been saved to the database. The app additionally used a branching logic that allowed for displaying or hiding fields relying on the worth enter of earlier fields.

After the information have been entered and uploaded in REDCap, extra course of validation have been used to make sure knowledge have been full, constant, logical, and correct. Exterior guidelines to detect lacking knowledge, out of vary values and inconsistent knowledge have been outlined and programmed utilizing SAS 9.3. High quality checks primarily based on these guidelines have been run weekly, and a spreadsheet was generated with all of the discrepancies discovered. These discrepancies have been resolved by investigators after logging into the system. Moreover, stories with plots and descriptive statistics for every variable have been generated month-to-month within the module “Stats & Charts” of REDCap. These stories contained absolute and % values for class variables. For steady variables, these stories included share of lacking values, minimal and most values, imply, normal deviation and percentiles.

High quality management measurements mirrored ongoing, day-to-day overview of knowledge generated from accredited protocol-driven procedures. The DCC supported weekly on-site monitoring by Web site Area Coordinators. Weekly telephone calls have been carried out to watch fieldwork processes and knowledge high quality. Digital varieties have been checked for completeness, knowledge accuracy, and proper storage in a weekly foundation. Additional, knowledge high quality and monitoring stories have been generated weekly from the REDCap system by the DCC and despatched to Principal Investigators and Co-investigators.

Datasets have been stored inside REDCap, the place they have been protected, accessible for look-up, and logged in keeping with Good Scientific Apply (GCP). Information was exported in SAS format and positioned in a safe Dropbox folder. Moreover, for long-term preservation, the database and code labels have been saved as delimited.



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