Bodily environmental alternatives for energetic play and bodily exercise stage in preschoolers: a multicriteria evaluation | BMC Public Well being

Research design

This can be a quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional examine, accepted by the Analysis Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM (Protocol quantity: 2,773,418), with the written knowledgeable consent of these accountable and the consent of the contributors. Knowledge assortment passed off from July to December 2019.


From 11 public faculties in a Brazilian municipality, the contributors who accepted had been from 9 faculties. Pattern dimension was estimated utilizing the OpenEpi software program, model 3.01, following a examine with related design [43]. For this, a prevalence of three% of Brazilian preschoolers who meet the PA tips advisable by the WHO [44]was thought-about, with a desired accuracy of 10%, a confidence interval of 95% and an impact dimension of 1 [45]. Contemplating a inhabitants of 1241 youngsters enrolled within the Brazilian municipality studied [46], and an adjustment for potential pattern losses of 10%, the pattern dimension resulted in 51 preschool youngsters.

Exclusion standards had been untimely and low start weight infants; infants with problems in being pregnant and childbirth; infants with indicators of malnutrition or illnesses that interfered with development and improvement. Youngsters with any situation that interfered with cognitive and motor improvement had been additionally excluded.


For the characterization of the contributors, a questionnaire was developed to gather knowledge on the kid’s start and well being. As well as, the shift the kid research (full, partial), the mom’s schooling and the kid’s household’s financial stage had been checked-using questionnaires appropriate for preschoolers. The Brazil financial classification criterion from the Brazilian Affiliation of Analysis Firms (ABEP) was used to confirm the financial stage of households. This can be a questionnaire that stratifies the overall financial classification ensuing from this criterion from A1 (increased financial class) to D-E (decrease financial class) [47].

The PA stage was measured utilizing an accelerometer (Actigraph®- Mannequin GT9X); for a interval of three days [48], for no less than 570 min a day [49], which is taken into account appropriate for preschoolers [48]. Accelerometers had been initialized and analyzed utilizing 5-s epochs. In all analyses, consecutive intervals of ≥20 min of zero counts had been outlined as non-wear time [50], with a sampling fee of 60 Hz. The accelerometer was positioned on the precise aspect of the hip to seize accelerations and decelerations of the physique and decide goal measurements of gross acceleration and depth of bodily exercise [50]. A skilled researcher positioned the machine on the kid’s proper hip at 7 am and the mother and father had been instructed to withdraw at 19 pm. Pediatric cutoff factors validated for preschoolers, with rating values, classify as sedentary depth (0 to 819 counts/m), gentle depth (820 to 3907 counts/m), reasonable depth (3908 to 6111 counts/m) and vigorous depth (above 6612 counts/m) [51]. For this examine, the kid’s imply time at these intensities was used. The classification adopted for “energetic” or “insufficiently energetic” was established in line with the WHO, which considers an energetic baby to be one who has a PA of not less than 180 min/day, with a minimal of 60 min/day in MVPA [52]. The accelerometer knowledge was initially downloaded utilizing ActiLife Software program (model 5.10) after which analyzed utilizing customized Excel macros.

The standard of the surroundings by which the kid lives was assessed utilizing the Early Childhood House Commentary for Measurement of the Surroundings (EC_HOME) [53] . The EC_HOME is utilized via remark and semi-structured interviews throughout dwelling visits, standardized for kids aged 3 to five years. The instrument incorporates 55 objects divided into 8 scales: I-Studying supplies, II-Language stimulation, III-Bodily surroundings, IV-Responsiveness, V-Tutorial stimulation, VI-Modeling, VII-Selection, and VII-Acceptance. Every merchandise in every area was scored in a dichotomous method (0 or 1); with the utmost rating of the instrument 55 factors (increased scores mirrored higher analysis in every area). Of observe, the sum of the gross scores of the subscales was categorized within the following ranges: Higher Fourth (values between 46 and 55 factors), Center half (values between 30 and 45 factors), and Lowest Fourth (values between 0 and 29 factors). For evaluation, the sum of the uncooked scores of the subscales was used. For the elaboration of the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives, we used two objects of the subscale III of the referred instrument, which assesses, amongst others, the presence of a yard and the interior bodily surroundings of the home contemplating 30m2 per inhabitant. The HOME Stock has been used worldwide to judge the house surroundings in each worldwide [54] and transcultural research [55], presenting psychometric traits investigated in Brazilian preschoolers sample- evaluation of inside consistency passable for the entire scale (Cronbach’s Alpha = .84 for the 55 objects) [56].

The out of doors time questionnaire proposed by Burdette et al. [57], evaluated the day by day time of participation in video games and out of doors video games and sedentary conduct (day by day time watching tv) at dwelling. The mother and father accomplished the questionnaire in relation to the kid’s conduct on a typical day of the week and on a typical day of the weekend, contemplating three completely different intervals of the day. Every interval the time reported by the mother and father was recorded and the sum of this time open air in minutes calculated. This questionnaire was validated for Brazilian preschoolers [58].

The standard of the varsity surroundings was assessed utilizing the Early Childhood Surroundings Ranking Scales (ECERS) [59], which include inclusive and culturally delicate indicators for a lot of objects. The dimensions consists of 43 objects organized into 7 subscales (1-House and Furnishings, 2-Private Care Routines, 3-Language and Literacy, 4-Studying actions, 5-Interactions, 6-Program Construction, 7- Dad and mom and workers). Every high quality indicator was marked, contemplating its presence or absence in every collective surroundings (classroom), with the objects scored from 1 to 7. The ultimate rating of the dimensions is given by the imply of the seven subscales. It’s an ordinal, growing scale, from 1 to 7, the interpretation of high quality being 1: insufficient; 3: minimal (primary); 5: good; 7: glorious. For the elaboration of the examine index, two objects from subscale 1 had been used, which included the presence physics and use of a park and toys along with the varsity house. This questionnaire is a well known worldwide instrument translated to Portuguese [60] and utilized in completely different Brazilian research together with preschoolers [60, 61]. Of observe, the instrument presents psychometric properties for Brazilian preschoolers [62].


Recruitment passed off on the doorways of the faculties, and the invitation was made to the youngsters’s guardians once they left the classroom for the category. After written consent, the following steps had been scheduled. The primary stage was carried out on the baby’s dwelling with the completion of questionnaires characterizing the kid and your loved ones, financial [47], time open air [57] and utility of EC-HOME [53] along with steering on the instrument (accelerometer) that the kid used to measure the PA stage.

The households had been instructed about the usage of the accelerometer, delivered by a correctly skilled researcher and positioned on the kid’s proper hip on every single day of use. The household eliminated the machine, positioned at 7 am, at 7 pm. The kids used the machine for 3 days and, if the information weren’t captured, the use was repeated within the following week.

The second stage was carried out within the faculty surroundings, the place it was utilized by ECERS. To make sure reliability and inside management, just one skilled researcher utilized all assessments, measures and questionnaires.

Knowledge evaluation

We used the Multi-attribute utility principle (MAUT), a instrument used within the setting of the connection and existence of a number of elements within the analysis course of to establish, characterize and mix completely different variables [63]. Nobre and colleagues [64], in a examine utilizing MAUT additionally introduced an analogous methodology describing the phases of MAUT:

Section 1: number of standards

In response to MAUT, chosen standards should faithfully symbolize what might be assessed and are chosen from the literature [65]. Thus, for the bodily environmental alternatives for energetic play, the chosen standards, primarily based on the literature, had been: 1-Time the kid spends open air on weekdays [24, 26, 27, 57, 66], 2-Time the kid spends open air on weekend days [26, 57]; 3-Presence of inside and exterior house in the home out there to play [23, 33]; 4- Exterior house (patio or court docket) of the varsity that enables enjoying [19, 23]; 5- If the varsity has a playground (playground) [30, 38, 67].

Section 2: establishing a utility scale for scoring every criterion

Thereafter the standards chosen, we established scores for the chosen standards on the identical ordinal scale. Inside MAUT it could occur that some chosen standards have completely different models of measure quantified via attributes [65]. In our examine, the chosen standards quantified responses utilizing attributes described within the second column of Desk 1. On this section, the responses had been transformed into numerical variables via an ordinal scale. For every reply, a optimistic worth was attributed when the apply was thought-about favorable and null if the criterion didn’t characterize bodily environmental alternatives for energetic play.

Desk 1 Standards evaluated and potential responses

The primary criterion, “Time that the kid spends open air on days of the week (minutes)” [26, 57, 66], the second criterion, “Time the kid spends open air on weekend days (minutes)” [26, 57], the third criterion, “Home has an inside surroundings with a minimal of 30m2 per inhabitant and an exterior house that enables play” [24, 33] and the fourth criterion, “College has house (patio or court docket) that enables energetic play” [19, 23] .

The fifth criterion, “College has a park with toys” [30, 38, 67], scored 1 the kid who studied at a faculty that had a park with toys that encourage gross motor coordination and 0 the varsity that didn’t have a park with toys, in line with ECERS standards [59]. Thus, primarily based on section 1, the kid with the best rating within the multicriteria evaluation of bodily environmental alternatives for PA is the one who spent 120 min or extra enjoying open air on weekdays and on weekends. This baby resided in a home with an inside house of not less than 30 m2 per inhabitant and with a yard or exterior house that allowed energetic play and studied in a faculty that contained a patio or court docket that allowed motion and a park with toys. Desk 1 presents the standards with the potential scores.

Section 3: dedication of the load for every standards of bodily environmental alternatives

The quantity represents the significance of every criterion is weight. If the choice maker understands that one criterion is extra related than the opposite (supported by the literature or within the opinion of specialists on the topic), it’ll have better weight [63]. For the analysis, equal weights had been used for the completely different standards, assuming that every chosen issue has the identical diploma of relevance within the strategy of bodily environmental stimulation alternatives for PA apply skilled by youngsters.

Section 4: calculation of the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives

The multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives refers back to the weighted sum of the evaluations of the completely different standards. In our examine, the weights thought-about for every criterion had been the identical (section 3); due to this fact, to calculate the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives, a mean of the evaluations of all standards had been established for every collaborating baby. It’s noticed, in eq. 1, how this calculation was made (n = variety of standards evaluated):

$${displaystyle start{array}{l} Multicriteria indexof bodily environmental {alternatives}_{baby i}= {} Analysis criterion {1}_{baby i}{weight}_{criterion 1}+.dots + Analysis criterion {n}_{baby i};{peso}_{criterion n}finish{array}}$$


Section 5: validation of outcomes

At this second, we verified whether or not the multicriteria methodology carried out meets the target [51, 53]. Our examine checked the connection and contribution of the index to elucidate objectively the extent of PA of sedentary PA, depth of sunshine, reasonable, vigorous, MVPA and classification as “energetic” and “insufficiently energetic” [47]. Thus, a correlation evaluation was carried out between the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives and the PA intensities collected by the accelerometer.

The Excel Program (version-2010) was used to formulate the multicriteria mannequin, later, for the validation stage; the information had been transferred to the Statistical Bundle for the Social Sciences (version-23.0), to carry out Pearson’s correlation evaluation and easy regression evaluation (p < 0.05). After making use of Shapiro Wilk take a look at on the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives, we discovered that the variable had a traditional distribution, performing a subsequent Pearson correlation evaluation. Then, we analyzed these variables that confirmed a correlation above 0.20 by easy linear regression evaluation with a view to confirm how a lot the multicriteria index of bodily environmental alternatives may clarify the PA intensities.

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